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International Forces, Boxer Rebellion, 1900
Private, German East Asia Brigade

The East Asia Brigade was formed and outfitted quickly in Germany during the summer of 1900. The uniforms were officially field grey, but differences in materials, dye batches and suppliers created a wide variety in the shades worn by the troops. In general, the jacket (litewka) was of a slightly darker shade than the hat or trousers. Only in the cavalry does the color of the tunic appear to be lighter than the trousers.
The hat was made of grey felt and trimmed along the edge of the brim with poppy red (light green for Jägers). The hat band was in the branch color (white for infantry; light green for Jägers; poppy red for cavalry; black with poppy red trim for artillery, pioneers and railroad troops), but photographs indicate that this was not worn in China. The hat was turned up on the right side and a black-white-red national cockade was attached to the upper edge of the turned-up brim. Beneath the national cockade was worn a small cockade from the soldier’s home province, in this case the blue-white-blue of Bavaria.
The model 1892 litewka is of field grey cloth and is fastened down the front by six horn buttons. There are four large pockets on the front of the jacket and, unusually, two in the rear. The two lower front pockets were intended to carry cartridges, and were lined with leather to improve wear. The collar, front seam of the jacket and pocket flaps were trimmed in poppy red for all branches except Jägers, who had light green trim. The shoulder-straps were reversible for either field or garrison duty. When in the field, the straps were field grey trimmed with poppy red (light green for Jägers). For garrison duty, the shoulder straps were of a solid color in the unit’s branch color-white for infantry, light green for Jägers, poppy red for cavalry, artillery, pioneer and railroad troops. The shoulder-straps of the infantry bore the unit’s number embroidered in red. Artillery had a red grenade, pioneers a red ‘P’ and railroad troops a red ‘E’ and lightning bolt.
Boots were of red-brown leather. All other belts and pouches were of ‘greenish-brown’ leather. A bread sack was worn on the left hip and a canteen on the right hip. The rifle was the Model 1898 Mauser, which fired a five-round clip. Each of the cartridge pouches carried three clips for the rifle. For summer service a light-weight khaki uniform and tropical helmet with khaki cover were issued. The cut and style of this uniform was very similar to that of the German Seebataillon. Shoulder-strap colors for garrison and field duty remained the same for the khaki uniform. The Jägers adopted a strange flat-topped sun helmet for their tropical kit, apparently attempting to pattern it after their shako.

Private, Italian Bersaglieri

When the Bersaglieri left Italy for China in the summer of 1900, they took with them their dress blue uniform and a khaki field service uniform. The khaki uniforms did not stand up well to the campaigning and, by the winter of 1900-01, most of the men were wearing their warmer blue uniforms. The light khaki uniform was simple and lacked decorations and insignia except for white metal stars on the front corners of the collar. The white tropical service helmet had a khaki cover, but it was not always worn. A bunch of black green cock feathers, the symbol of the Bersaglieri, was worn through a hole in the khaki cover.
The collar of the blue uniform was black with white metal stars in the crimson ‘flames’. The shoulder-straps were dark blue with crimson piping. The blue trousers had crimson piping down the outside seams. Regulations called for white canvas gaiters, but in China it appears that the men wore just their ankle-high black boots. The white helmet had a large national cockade in red-white-green with the brass helmet plate superimposed. The badge consisted of crossed rifles, bugle and flaming grenade with a cut-out number ‘5’ on the grenade. All leather equipment was black. The men were armed with the 1891 6.5mm. Parravicino-Carcano rifle and bayonet.


Private 1st Class, French Marine Infantry



Three battalions from the 9th and 11th Marine Infantry fought in China during the Boxer Rebellion. The summer uniform worn by the men in China consisted of a white tropical helmet with a blue cover, a blue single-breasted tunic and blue trousers. The blue material was a denim cloth of faded ‘mechanic’s blue’. The tunic was fastened down the front by five copper buttons. The gaiters were of heavy white canvas. The helmet badge was a copper ‘foul anchor’. Some men wore white linen trousers. Winter gear worn in China consisted of a large beret ornamented with a red anchor, a wool overcoat and a sleeveless sheepskin jacket worn with the fleece inward. Belts and equipment were of black leather. When the full pack was not worn, a grey blanket roll was worn over the left shoulder. This man wears the Lebel rifle equipment.

International Forces, Boxer Rebellion, 1900

Private, German East Asia Brigade

The East Asia Brigade was formed and outfitted quickly in Germany during the summer of 1900. The uniforms were officially field grey, but differences in materials, dye batches and suppliers created a wide variety in the shades worn by the troops. In general, the jacket (litewka) was of a slightly darker shade than the hat or trousers. Only in the cavalry does the color of the tunic appear to be lighter than the trousers.

The hat was made of grey felt and trimmed along the edge of the brim with poppy red (light green for Jägers). The hat band was in the branch color (white for infantry; light green for Jägers; poppy red for cavalry; black with poppy red trim for artillery, pioneers and railroad troops), but photographs indicate that this was not worn in China. The hat was turned up on the right side and a black-white-red national cockade was attached to the upper edge of the turned-up brim. Beneath the national cockade was worn a small cockade from the soldier’s home province, in this case the blue-white-blue of Bavaria.

The model 1892 litewka is of field grey cloth and is fastened down the front by six horn buttons. There are four large pockets on the front of the jacket and, unusually, two in the rear. The two lower front pockets were intended to carry cartridges, and were lined with leather to improve wear. The collar, front seam of the jacket and pocket flaps were trimmed in poppy red for all branches except Jägers, who had light green trim. The shoulder-straps were reversible for either field or garrison duty. When in the field, the straps were field grey trimmed with poppy red (light green for Jägers). For garrison duty, the shoulder straps were of a solid color in the unit’s branch color-white for infantry, light green for Jägers, poppy red for cavalry, artillery, pioneer and railroad troops. The shoulder-straps of the infantry bore the unit’s number embroidered in red. Artillery had a red grenade, pioneers a red ‘P’ and railroad troops a red ‘E’ and lightning bolt.

Boots were of red-brown leather. All other belts and pouches were of ‘greenish-brown’ leather. A bread sack was worn on the left hip and a canteen on the right hip. The rifle was the Model 1898 Mauser, which fired a five-round clip. Each of the cartridge pouches carried three clips for the rifle. For summer service a light-weight khaki uniform and tropical helmet with khaki cover were issued. The cut and style of this uniform was very similar to that of the German Seebataillon. Shoulder-strap colors for garrison and field duty remained the same for the khaki uniform. The Jägers adopted a strange flat-topped sun helmet for their tropical kit, apparently attempting to pattern it after their shako.

Private, Italian Bersaglieri

When the Bersaglieri left Italy for China in the summer of 1900, they took with them their dress blue uniform and a khaki field service uniform. The khaki uniforms did not stand up well to the campaigning and, by the winter of 1900-01, most of the men were wearing their warmer blue uniforms. The light khaki uniform was simple and lacked decorations and insignia except for white metal stars on the front corners of the collar. The white tropical service helmet had a khaki cover, but it was not always worn. A bunch of black green cock feathers, the symbol of the Bersaglieri, was worn through a hole in the khaki cover.

The collar of the blue uniform was black with white metal stars in the crimson ‘flames’. The shoulder-straps were dark blue with crimson piping. The blue trousers had crimson piping down the outside seams. Regulations called for white canvas gaiters, but in China it appears that the men wore just their ankle-high black boots. The white helmet had a large national cockade in red-white-green with the brass helmet plate superimposed. The badge consisted of crossed rifles, bugle and flaming grenade with a cut-out number ‘5’ on the grenade. All leather equipment was black. The men were armed with the 1891 6.5mm. Parravicino-Carcano rifle and bayonet.

Private 1st Class, French Marine Infantry

Three battalions from the 9th and 11th Marine Infantry fought in China during the Boxer Rebellion. The summer uniform worn by the men in China consisted of a white tropical helmet with a blue cover, a blue single-breasted tunic and blue trousers. The blue material was a denim cloth of faded ‘mechanic’s blue’. The tunic was fastened down the front by five copper buttons. The gaiters were of heavy white canvas. The helmet badge was a copper ‘foul anchor’. Some men wore white linen trousers. Winter gear worn in China consisted of a large beret ornamented with a red anchor, a wool overcoat and a sleeveless sheepskin jacket worn with the fleece inward. Belts and equipment were of black leather. When the full pack was not worn, a grey blanket roll was worn over the left shoulder. This man wears the Lebel rifle equipment.



International Forces, Boxer Rebellion, 1900

Private, German East Asia Brigade

The East Asia Brigade was formed and outfitted quickly in Germany during the summer of 1900. The uniforms were officially field grey, but differences in materials, dye batches and suppliers created a wide variety in the shades worn by the troops. In general, the jacket (litewka) was of a slightly darker shade than the hat or trousers. Only in the cavalry does the color of the tunic appear to be lighter than the trousers.

The hat was made of grey felt and trimmed along the edge of the brim with poppy red (light green for Jägers). The hat band was in the branch color (white for infantry; light green for Jägers; poppy red for cavalry; black with poppy red trim for artillery, pioneers and railroad troops), but photographs indicate that this was not worn in China. The hat was turned up on the right side and a black-white-red national cockade was attached to the upper edge of the turned-up brim. Beneath the national cockade was worn a small cockade from the soldier’s home province, in this case the blue-white-blue of Bavaria.

The model 1892 litewka is of field grey cloth and is fastened down the front by six horn buttons. There are four large pockets on the front of the jacket and, unusually, two in the rear. The two lower front pockets were intended to carry cartridges, and were lined with leather to improve wear. The collar, front seam of the jacket and pocket flaps were trimmed in poppy red for all branches except Jägers, who had light green trim. The shoulder-straps were reversible for either field or garrison duty. When in the field, the straps were field grey trimmed with poppy red (light green for Jägers). For garrison duty, the shoulder straps were of a solid color in the unit’s branch color-white for infantry, light green for Jägers, poppy red for cavalry, artillery, pioneer and railroad troops. The shoulder-straps of the infantry bore the unit’s number embroidered in red. Artillery had a red grenade, pioneers a red ‘P’ and railroad troops a red ‘E’ and lightning bolt.

Boots were of red-brown leather. All other belts and pouches were of ‘greenish-brown’ leather. A bread sack was worn on the left hip and a canteen on the right hip. The rifle was the Model 1898 Mauser, which fired a five-round clip. Each of the cartridge pouches carried three clips for the rifle. For summer service a light-weight khaki uniform and tropical helmet with khaki cover were issued. The cut and style of this uniform was very similar to that of the German Seebataillon. Shoulder-strap colors for garrison and field duty remained the same for the khaki uniform. The Jägers adopted a strange flat-topped sun helmet for their tropical kit, apparently attempting to pattern it after their shako.

Private, Italian Bersaglieri

When the Bersaglieri left Italy for China in the summer of 1900, they took with them their dress blue uniform and a khaki field service uniform. The khaki uniforms did not stand up well to the campaigning and, by the winter of 1900-01, most of the men were wearing their warmer blue uniforms. The light khaki uniform was simple and lacked decorations and insignia except for white metal stars on the front corners of the collar. The white tropical service helmet had a khaki cover, but it was not always worn. A bunch of black green cock feathers, the symbol of the Bersaglieri, was worn through a hole in the khaki cover.

The collar of the blue uniform was black with white metal stars in the crimson ‘flames’. The shoulder-straps were dark blue with crimson piping. The blue trousers had crimson piping down the outside seams. Regulations called for white canvas gaiters, but in China it appears that the men wore just their ankle-high black boots. The white helmet had a large national cockade in red-white-green with the brass helmet plate superimposed. The badge consisted of crossed rifles, bugle and flaming grenade with a cut-out number ‘5’ on the grenade. All leather equipment was black. The men were armed with the 1891 6.5mm. Parravicino-Carcano rifle and bayonet.

Private 1st Class, French Marine Infantry

Three battalions from the 9th and 11th Marine Infantry fought in China during the Boxer Rebellion. The summer uniform worn by the men in China consisted of a white tropical helmet with a blue cover, a blue single-breasted tunic and blue trousers. The blue material was a denim cloth of faded ‘mechanic’s blue’. The tunic was fastened down the front by five copper buttons. The gaiters were of heavy white canvas. The helmet badge was a copper ‘foul anchor’. Some men wore white linen trousers. Winter gear worn in China consisted of a large beret ornamented with a red anchor, a wool overcoat and a sleeveless sheepskin jacket worn with the fleece inward. Belts and equipment were of black leather. When the full pack was not worn, a grey blanket roll was worn over the left shoulder. This man wears the Lebel rifle equipment.


   
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